What Causes Gum Recession?
Gum recession can take place for a number of reasons including:
- gum disease, with inflammation causing damage to the attachment of the gum to the root of the tooth,
- genetic or congenital recession due to anatomically thin bone over the roots of a tooth,
- tension applied to the gum tissues due to a muscular attachment to the jaw bone at the site of a frenum most commonly in the upper jaw in the midline, but it can occur at other frenum sites
- trauma from tongue piercing jewellery can damage the gum attachment to the roots of the lower incisors on the tongue side
- Use of certain recreational drugs including cocaine that are rubbed onto the gum in the cheek for absorption and this may affect the tissues leading to recession,
- After surgery in the mouth due to a combination of trauma from the incisions and a mildly compromised blood supply to the tissues.
The repair of recession is achieved using a connective tissue graft that may be obtained in three ways:
- First, graft tissue may be harvested from a patient’s own tissues known as an autograft (same individual). The deep surface of the same patient’s palate (roof of the mouth) may be used as an autograft tissue donor site.
- Secondly a graft tissue may be obtained from suitably prepared collagen from an animal model most commonly the pig, known as xenograft (different species) including products such as “Mucograft” (manufactured by Geistlich). There is the additional cost for the graft that is borne by the patient in addition to the cost of surgery.
- and finally human donated and suitably prepared tissue called an allograft (same species but different individual) may be used as the graft. This includes tissue products like Allograft (supplied by BioHorizons). Again the cost is borne by the patient. Some patients feel uncomfortable having human donor tissue used but human graft tissue is not uncommon with other donor tissues including eye corneal tissue, and of course liver and lung translants. Due to the preparation of this connective tissue graft there are no rejection problems and no need for anti-rejection drugs.
All three techniques work well in different clinical situations.
The benefit of using either a xenograft or allograft is the avoidance of a second surgical site for harvesting grafting tissue in the same individual so that there is less oral discomfort and less opportunity for post-operative bleeding, swelling or infection.
contact the friendly team at NQ Surgical Dentistry today on (07) 4725 1656 or call in to see us at 183 Kings Rd, Pimlico QLD 4812